For each of his own fragments, Roller does carefully list the correspond- ing Berger fragments, with a few omissions F 36 includes also II. It has also led Roller into an error 35 : Berger did not in fact miss F 33, the discussion about borders, since F 33 includes II.
Most excisions provide parallel but anonymous attestations of material in Eratosthenes, and thus indeed belong not among fragments but within commentary e. A few that cite Eratosthenes explicitly ought to have been added to fragments: a I. Roller addresses the oft-neglected issue of when a work was lost 29—33, , suggesting that attacks by Hipparchus and others ran the Geographika off the market; rather, it was progress in geographical knowledge, as Era- tosthenes anticipated F 15, 33 , confirmed by Strabo in F 8. Patrokles is preserved only in Strabo, who knew him only via Eratosthenes and Hipparchos.
Three fragments of Patrokles were accepted by Berger as fragments of Eratosthe- nes, but omitted by Roller cf. Despite the quibbles, all easily corrected in a second printing, the book is of great value, and should be used and studied eagerly by all. The Artistry of the Homeric Simile. Hanover, N. ISBN William C. His supporting theories and the structure of his book, however, may attenuate its effectiveness.
The book consists of six chapters, an appendix of simile types, and endnotes. This process is contingent upon poet and audience knowing the conventions of simile use. Chapter 2 considers these conventions to determine what choices were available to fit similes to the narrative. This potentially fascinating formulation seems more like a placeholder for a process better illustrated through a sustained engagement with cognitive science.
Scott cites studies of, and based on, cognitive psy- chology e. While the ontological status of the simileme is dubious, the exercise of imagining it is useful.
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Chapters 3—6 examine the Homeric books with the most similes. The second simile describes a wind blowing through a cornfield.
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For comparison there is a simile of winds blowing through a forest at This storm is a major event; the winds are strong enough to break branches. In contrast, the bobbing ears in the cornfield recall an everyday scene on the farm that should only arouse delight. Each of the two similes in book 2 and is drawn from one of the most traditional subjects, but the poet diminishes the dangerous potential of the winds by omitting those parts of the simileme that menace or destroy. It is further significant that these two similes are joined with no intervening line, and the full unit is framed by the same phrase in the narrative: "The council was moved" and Juxtaposed similes are found elsewhere at 2.
The previously mentioned simile at In book 2 the waves thunder on a broad beach and the sea roars. This is a scene that could well attract picnickers and hikers—not much threat compared to the violent whirlwind that is present elsewhere in the simile repertoire.
Still, the poet has not chosen the mildest descriptions of wind and waves for book 2. There is no calmer picture of winds than that of the fog hanging over the mountaintops when the winds are asleep 5.
Most of the similes in book 2 present only middling or weak support. This simile is curious because it seems to have two focuses in the narrative, neither of which is directly supported within the simile. It is introduced by the phrase "The Argives cried aloud" but rejoins the narrative with the troops being scattered among the ships. In the simile there is no word for sound, and the only support for the scattering of the Greeks is the winds that blow "from this side and that.
The emphasis within the simile seems to be on steadfastness. The rock itself is a "high, jutting crag that the waves never leave"; in support of this reading, there is a parallel passage in which both narrative and simile use the image of the crag to underline the steadfast resistance of a group:. In book 2, however, steadfastness does not seem relevant—especially since the assembly is in the process of scattering, each man to his own ship. Even with this change in narrative situation, the simile in book 2 is not as strongly phrased as that in book In book 2 the headland is high; in book 15 the crag is towering.
The crag simile in book 2 is formed. The marshalling of the Greek army for its grand presentation in the Catalogue is a major moment. In no other passage is the power of the largest expeditionary force in Greek legend made so explicit, with the names of heroes from all parts of the Greek world joined in one panoramic display. This display of the Greek forces provides a moment of order from which the maelstrom of the Iliad will be generated; only in book 23 will the characters of the Greek heroic world be regathered. The Catalogue is introduced with appropriate weight by the unique prelude of seven similes in twenty-nine lines:.
Simply stated, there is no short passage of Homeric narrative that is as densely packed with similes. The effect is even greater because none of the seven similes is short. The repertoire of fire similes contains two basic types: one fire is frightening in its ability to destroy; the other is beautiful and bright, an object of wonder.
The destructive fire is nowhere better exemplified than at But there is also the more lyrical fire that describes the gleam from the divine arms of Achilles:. In this simile the gleam of a distant fire is so far away that the sailors are more concerned over friends left behind than any threat of storm damage. Fire is a common comparison for the activity of warriors, alone or in groups, often describing a strong attack or an impassioned spirit. While the simile from book 11 directly focuses on the wind that whips the fire, the simile in book 2 merely defines the location of the fire, "on the peaks of a mountain.
Again a traditional subject, fire, is designed by the poet to express far less than full strength. The range of power within the simileme is large; there is an extreme diminution of force at Odyssey 5. When the actions of warriors are compared to birds, the simile usually focuses on the strength of the attack. In addition, there are similes where whole groups of attacking warriors are compared to birds of prey; for example, Odysseus and his friends attack the panicked suitors in the final battle at his palace:.
The simile at 2. These birds seek no prey; they fly randomly here and there as they delight in the openness of the meadow. In addition, the species cited are traditionally victims. Both Penelope and Telemachus see an eagle attack a single goose or geese, and later the interpretation is immediately offered that Odysseus is the eagle that will overpower and take vengeance on the weaker suitors Ody. Because line is repeated elsewhere in a similar context, it is probable that it is a traditional listing of victims:. Thus, another dilution of a traditional subject by selecting the weaker features in the simileme.
Once again the low end of heroic potential within the simileme is reached when Achilles complains of his disadvantaged position in. Homer juxtaposes these two similes with differing subjects to illustrate the vast number of troops marching against the Trojans. The short simile of leaves and flowers seems a standard comparison repeated at Odyssey 9. Flies also seem a typological subject for this context: there is another simile at In the places where he uses a simile to illustrate numbers of troops, the tradition—as far as it can be defined—offers only two subjects of consistent usage: insects and leaves.
This simile describes the leaders among their men, a scene that occurs often in the Iliad and Odyssey , several times with a simile. In almost every case the tone of the simile reflects the surrounding narrative. If the men are.
Equally appropriate analogues for a war context are the comparisons of Idomeneus to a boar, of the two Ajaxes to a dark cloud that causes the goatherd to drive his flock to safety, of the men thronging around Diomedes to lions or boars, and the appearance of Hector among his followers as an evil star 4. In the Iliad even Odysseus, when he is not actually fighting, is compared to a ram walking through a flock of white ewes 3. The simile in book 2, however, presents a striking discrepancy between the warrior world of the army and a scene of peaceful nature, a discrepancy paralleled in the aristeia of Idomeneus.
Aeneas gathers his comrades to confront Idomeneus, and the soldiers follow along:.
Because this tranquil scene introduces some of the goriest fighting and crudest woundings in the Iliad , the effect of the simile emerges only from a view of. Likewise, in book 2 the mustering of the army for combat would naturally call for a simile appropriate to a warlike context. Instead the poet has developed the simile to stress the non-warlike features of the Greek leaders: the goatherds control the flocks easily, the scene is a pasture, and the flocks have idly mingled together. Agamemnon is presented as the supreme king of the Greek army with two more juxtaposed similes.
First, though there are other similes in which alternatives are offered as comparisons, here Agamemnon is simultaneously likened to three different divinities. With the sole exception of Hector,. There is even a lowered intensity in the choice of the simile form. The simile by its nature is an indirect description. The second simile centers on a bull, an animal familiar from the simile repertoire.
Bulls are usually victims, especially of lions. Similes of farm animals usually describe warriors who are helpless or dying The simile of the mother cow lowing over her calf that describes Menelaus taking his stand over the body of Patroclus at Menelaus is always a warrior who causes concern to others when he is exposed to danger. His strength is immediately shown to be sound when he slays Euphorbus just as a tempest uproots a young olive tree 53 , and he is compared to an enraged lion as he terrifies the Trojans cowering around him But then Hector confronts him; he quails and retreats to seek Ajax, who returns with him to guard the body of Patroclus.
A related use of the farm animal simileme occurs in the passage where Paris returns to battle as a horse racing to the pasture 6. When the wounded Hector recovers his strength and reenters battle, he receives the same simile to express his renewed energy, but it is immediately enhanced with a second simile of a lion Though the horse simile is repeated word for word, the effect is totally different; when the second simile is missing, Paris seems a frivolous creature interested only in warrior-like posturing.
The tone of the bull simile in book 2 can be further contrasted with alternative comparisons at similar junctures.
The closest parallel is at Also From this brief survey it appears that warriors are usually compared to farm animals when the poet presents them as weak, helpless, or pathetic—and there is no warlike word or serious threat added to the image of the kingly bull amid the cattle that describes Agamemnon. This simile suits the infectious joy of men who have been weeping disconsolately on the beach.
His leadership has ebbed to the point where his men will have to remind him of their goal. A like tone of failed leadership describes the commander Agamemnon as he musters his troops for the Catalogue. If a simile cluster is defined as a grouping of at least three long similes within thirty lines, all of which are focused on a single scene, then there are only three other identifiable simile clusters.
In book 11 after Agamemnon departs wounded from the battle —83 , Hector advances for the day of glory promised by Zeus. Second, in book 15 when the Trojans are on the verge of burning the Greek ships, thus fulfilling the plan of Zeus and putting crucial pressure on Achilles ff. In this passage similes respond to the balanced battle between Greeks and Trojans:. These four passages in books 2, 11, 15, and 17 establish the simile cluster as a form familiar to the poet. Two rules prevail in such clusters:.